The son of a wealthy Roman architect, Roberto Rossellini experimented with film in 1934. His 1938 short, Prelude a L'apres-midi d'une Faune attracted attention but was banned by Mussolini's censors. Nonetheless, when Mussolini's film-executive son, Vittorio, offered Rossellini a job making movies, he accepted. His first fictional film, La Nava Bianca, was released in 1940. As war raged, Rossellini clandestinely shot footage of anti-Fascist fighters while serving as advisor on Il Duce-sanctioned films. In 1943, Rossellini worked on Desiderio, considered by many the first neorealist film. His 1945 feature, Open City, starring Anna Magnani and co-written by Federico Fellini, was an international hit. Rossellini followed with two other acclaimed features, Paisan (1946) and Germany Year Zero (1947). Beginning with Stromboli in 1949, he directed Ingrid Bergman in a series of films, including Europa '51 (1951) and Voyage in Italy (1953), which today are considered modernist masterpieces though ignored by critics at the time. From the early 1960's until his death, Rossellini worked almost exclusively in television, directing the biographies of Socrates, Saint Augustine, and King Louis XIV.